The project is a research with a total duration of 36 months. The project will be implemented in three 12-month phases. The research will be done according to the research plan
In the first research phase (months 1-12) of the project, a website in Croatian and English, as well as a computer application for entering, storing, viewing and monitoring project participants and project research results will be created. The created application will be uploaded to the server. Health care related and self perception data will be collected on-line.
through questionnaire posted on a specialized server (surveymonkey). Intention is to collect wider information with different kinesiological activities and on sport population of different age. Several scientific papers are planned to be published by collecting of research data by
online surveys. Video instructions on the manner of conducting measurements (protocol) will be recorded in order to inform the participants. Trainers willing to participate will be educated on the measurement protocols which will be performed as a part of the project. The initial questionnaire will be used to gather information on the participant status. Based on the pilot research, analysis of the knowledge gathered thus far and practical applicability of the tests, a certain number of existing “unspecific” measuring instruments will be selected, which will be applied to the entire participant sample.
In the second phase (months 13-24) of the project, the following will be performed: a) field research (measurements) – gathering data on the anthropometric features of the participants, b) detecting the anaerobic capacities level of the participants, which will be done with certain unspecific field measuring instruments (tests) c) experimental technical design of a new specific field test.
In the third phase (months 25-36) the gathering of the data on the anthropometric status as well as the anaerobic capacities level of the participants will be finished, with the project implementation plan containing the validation of a specific field measuring instrument (test) for the assessment of anaerobic capacities in striking martial arts. In line with the goals, and in the case of acquiring unsatisfactory metric characteristics in the newly designed test from the previously applied unspecific measuring instruments, certain tests will be selected according to the validation results, which will be recommended for practical application. Based on the acquired results, standard values will be calculated according to sport, sex and age. Papers will be published in renowned international magazines, and a documentary film will be made on the making of the project and its results. The documentary will be used to inform the public on the project results. In the second part of the third phase of the project a workshop will be organized, project results and the documentary will be presented, and a university course book related to the research area will be published.
The manner of gathering and processing data:
In order to achieve the research goals, a questionnaire for the identification and gathering of basic information on the participants will be drafted. The questionnaire is to be filled out electronically (online) on tablet computers. The national federations and clubs will provide the trainers with the invitation for the participation in the research and the written consent form for research participation for adult participants and the parents of underage participants. All data gathered will be used exclusively for the purposes of the scientific research in accordance with the regulations, ethical standards and recommendations of the Croatian Science Foundation. The database, which will be created in the computer database generation tool (Filemaker Advanced) for that particular purpose, will be uploaded on the specialized server for electronic data gathering and participant interaction. Access, data entry, overview and analysis of the results will be enabled for the persons involved with the research via the computer application (Filemaker Server 12). The system will have a password-protected access with the enabled automatic participant identification. Aside from the filling out of the questionnaire, data will also be gathered with the help of standardized anthropological status measurement protocols with an emphasis on the anaerobic capacities level of the participants.
In order to achieve the defined goals, the research will be done on a sample of at least 300 participants who are registered contestants in taekwondo (n>=120), karate (n>=120) and kickboxing (n>=60), including a certain number of national team members, all divided into subsamples according to sex, age: cadets (n=100), juniors (n=100), seniors (n=100) and achievements according to results (top=national and international medal holders; others=contestants with no significant results).
taekwondo karate Kickboxing*
Cadets (n>=100) >=40 >=40 >=20
Juniors (n>=100) >=40 >=40 >=20
Seniors (n>=100) >=40 >=40 >=20
UKUPNO n>=120 n>=120 n>=60
*If subject samples in some of pointed activities or age will not be representative, the focus of data collection will be oriented in activities with representative samples in order to realize project goals
The participant identification and classification variable sample will comprise: name and surname, name of father, sex, age, sport, country, club, professional qualification and occupation of the trainer, status regarding the national team, results achieved, area of competition, weight class, dominant side of the body, year they started training, hours of training per week, participation in additional conditional training, another sport training, address of residence, telephone number, e-mail address and a photograph.
Variable sample for anthropometric status detection: For the purpose of somatotyping (according to the Heath-Carter method), the variable sample comprises 10 anthropometric dimensions: stretch stature, body mass, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, medial calf), two bone breadths (biepicondylar humerus and femur), and two limb girths (arm flexed and tensed, calf).
Since there are weight classes and age groups in striking martial sports, which are the scope of this research, aside from the Heath-Carter method, and according to the research goals, the following variables will be measured on the participants with the device Segmental Body Composition Analyzer-Tanita BC-418 (Li et al 2013, Mally et al 2011, Zamrazilova et al 2010, Kutac et al 2010): Weight, Fat %, Fat Mass, Total Body Water, Muscle Mass, Basal Metabolic Rate, Bone Mass, a unique Visceral Fat indicator, Body Mass Index, and regional body composition for: Right arm, Right leg, Left arm, Left leg, Trunk.
Sample and description of anaerobic capacities level detection tests.
The measurement will be conducted in the morning without prior physical activity. The participants have to be well rested for the test. Before the measurement, the participants will watch videos showing the manner of performing the tests with all the information necessary for the correct performance of the test. The participants will perform the test equipped with Polar heart rate sensors. The participants will be weighed immediately before the measurement. Only one test will be done in a single day. After a minimum 48-hour rest, the same test will be taken again by the same participants under the same conditions (test-retest). The acquired data will be entered by means of tablet computers into the database on the server directly on the test site and used for further research. The following will be used for the anaerobic capacities level detection: The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), Phosphate Recovery Test, Sprint Fatigue Test, AFL Sprint Recovery Test, Bosco Repeat Vertical Jump test, and, as a variable compatible with all of the above tests, a fatigue index of each participant will be measured for the purposes of this research.
The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST); Draper i sur. (1997); Zacharogiannis i sur. (2004) involves six sprints over 35 meters with a 10 second recovery between each sprint, and provides measurements of peak power, average power and minimum power along with a fatigue index.
Equipment required: scales,stopwatcs, timing gates, measuring tape, marker cones, at least 50 meter track.
Procedure: Weigh each subject prior to the test for use in calculations, followed by a warm-up. Set up cones at each end of 35 meters of running track. Two testers may be required, as one person is required to time each run of 35 meters, the other to time the 10 seconds recovery period. The subject stands at one end of the 35m track, and starts a maximal sprint on the command ‘go’. Ensure the subject sprints maximally through the line each time. After 10 seconds, the next sprint starts from the opposite end of the 35 m track. Repeat this procedure until six sprints are completed.
Scoring: Record the time taken for each sprint to the nearest hundredth of a second (using timing gates provides greater accuracy). The sprint times along with body weight can be used to calculate maximal, minimal and average power outputs along with a fatigue index.
calculations: use the following formula to calculate the power for each sprint (weight=bodyweight of subject, distance=35m, time=seconds to run 35m). From these values you can determine the maximum and minimum power, average power, and fatigue index ((maximum power – minimum power) ÷ total time for the 6 sprints), Power = Weight × Distance ² ÷ Time ³ Power = Weight × 1225 ÷ Time ³
Phosphate Recovery Test (Dawson, B. i sur. 1991) involves seven flat-out sprints, each lasting seven seconds, with 23 seconds recovery.
Equipment required: stopwatch, timing gates, measuring tape, marker cones, at least 60 meter track.
Procedure: Marker cones are placed two meters apart for the first 20 meters. At forty meters from the first cone, cones would again be placed two meters apart to 60 meters (see diagram). The subjects set themselves at the first cone (Start 1). On the command “go”, each subject would sprints ‘all out’ for seven seconds. At seven seconds, “time” is called and an observer would note at what cone the subject had just past. The subject then has a 23 second passive recovery (walk/jog) period before the next sprint. For the second sprint subjects would set themselves at the last cone (Start 2), facing back along the cones. At 30 seconds after the start of their first sprint, they would sprint again for seven seconds in the direction they had come. Again “time ” is called at 7 seconds, and the distance run recorded. This is repeated for a total of seven sprints.
Scoring: The drop off distance is calculated by subtracting the distance covered in the last sprint by the distance covered in the first sprint. It is expected that the last sprint would cover less distance than the other sprints due to fatigue.
Sprint Fatigue Test
Equipment required: 2 stopwatches, timing gates, measuring tape, marker cones, at least 50 meter track.
Procedure: marker cones and lines are placed 30 meters apart to indicate the sprint distance. Two more cones placed a further 10 meters on each end. At the instructions of the timer, the subject places their foot at the starting line, then on ‘go’ two stopwatches are started simultaneously, and the subject sprints maximally for 30m, ensuring that they do not slow down before reaching the end. One stopwatch is used to time the sprint, the other continues to run. Record the time. The subjects use the 10 meter cone to slow down and turn, and return to the 30m finishing point. The next sprint will be in the opposite direction. The next 30 meter sprint starts 30 seconds after the first started. This cycle continues until 10 sprints are completed, starting at 30 sec, 1 min, 1.5 min, 2 min etc after the start of the first sprint.
Scoring: The fatigue index is calculated by taking the average speed of the first three trials and dividing it by the average speed of the last three trials. This will give a value approximately between 75 and 95%. Use the table below to determine the rating.
AFL Sprint Recovery Test
Equipment required: timing gates, measuring tape, stopwatch, marker cones, at least 50 meter track.
Procedure: Two lines are drawn (or tape used) on the track 30 meters apart, and timing gates placed at these points. Two cones are placed 10m beyond each end of the 30m, which will be the turning area. When all is ready, the participant places their preferred foot at the starting line and then sprints maximally for 30m, ensuring that they do not slow down before reaching the end. A stopwatch is started on the first movement of the runner, and is left on to measure total cumulative time. Record the time for each sprint from the timing gate system. After each sprint the runner turns (at the cones) and makes their way to the opposite end ready for the next sprint, to be done in the opposite direction to the previous sprint. The next 30 meter sprint starts 20 seconds after the first one started. This cycle continues until six sprints are completed. The sprints start a 0, 20 sec, 40 sec, 1 min, 1min 20 sec and 1min 40 sec after the start of the first sprint.
Scoring: The total of all six sprints are used as the score. A fatigue index can be calculated by comparing the first and last sprint times.
Bosco Repeat Vertical Jump test (Bosco i sur. 1983)
is a variation of the vertical jump test for measuring anaerobic leg power, in which multiple jumps are performed in a set time period. This is part of the Bosco Ergo Jump Protocol.
Equipment required: optojump (or similar device – e.g. Bosco Ergojump System, just jump mat, Myotest, infrared laser system.
Procedure: The aim is to perform the highest number of jumps with maximum height in the set time period. Jump height is calculated using a timing mat which measures the time the feet are off the mat (flight time) and time on mat (contact time). The athlete begins in a stationary position on the mat with weight evenly distributed over both feet. Hands are placed on the hips, and stay there throughout the test. When ready, the athlete squats down until the knees are bent at 90 degrees then jumps vertically as high as possible, and lands back on the mat with both feet at the same time, bending the knees and repeating the jumping action. This series of repeated maximum jumps continues for the set time period. The test time is between 5 and 60 seconds, often 60 seconds.
Scoring: Several results can be calculated from the test, using the data of the number of jumps, average flight time and contact time, and total time of the test.
jump height: The height of each vertical jump can be calculated using this formula: jump height = 4.9 x (0.5 x Time)2.
average power: The average power generated (W = Watts) is calculated from the test duration (Ts from 15 to 60 s), the number of jumps (n) total flight time (Ft ), so that; W = (Ft x Ts x g2) / 4n (Ts – Ft), where g is the acceleration due to gravity. See the table of reference values below.
fatigue index: to calculate the fatigue over time we can calculate the average every 15 or every 20″ in the range (0″ – 20″), (20″ – 40″), (40″ – 60″) or fractions 15″, then compare these values over time. Fatigue can also be calculated by dividing the average height of the jumps during the first fifteen seconds with the average height of the jumps in the last fifteen seconds
Blood Lactate Testing
Blood lactate is a product of anaerobic glycolysis, and its measurement is used in physiological assessments of athletes. It requires taking blood samples during exercise and measuring blood lactate levels at a range of intensities, and after exercise.
Equipment required: small scalpels or lancets, ice and container for storage, alcohol swabs, blood analysis equipment. Also need sharps and contaminated items disposal unit.
Procedure: Small pinprick blood samples can be taken from any place, often it is from the finger tip or earlobe. The area must be cleaned first, using a dry tissue to remove sweat, then an alcohol swab. Once the area is dry, the lancet (often with a spring loaded apparatus) is used to pierce the skin. Hopefully there will be good blood flow from the wound, which is collected into capillary tubes or other devices, ready for analysis. If the blood does not flow freely, apply gentle pressure away from the site, or re-prick the site.
analysis: Blood lactate levels indicate a combination of lactate production and release into the blood, and its removal from the blood.
The collected data will be imported from the database into a matrix of the Statistica software for Windows 7.0 (StatSoft, USA), in accordance with the defined research aims and set hypotheses. The level of significance will be set at p